K-12 Emergency Management Planning K-12 Emergency Management Planning

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Threat- and Hazard-Specific Annexes

The threat- and hazard-specific annexes describe the courses of action unique to particular threats and hazards. Courses of action already outlined in a functional annex need not be repeated in a threat- or hazard-specific annex. Develop these based on the prioritized list of threats and hazards determined in the assessment process. As planning teams develop courses of action for threats and hazards, they should consider the federal, state, and local regulations or mandates that often apply to specific threats hazards.

If there is a functional annex that applies to one of the threat- or hazard-specific annexes, the latter will include it by reference. For example, if a “during” course of action for a fire hazard involves evacuation, and there is an Evacuation Annex, the Fire Annex would indicate “see Evacuation Annex” in the “during” course of action section rather than repeat the evacuation courses of action in the Fire Annex.

Threat and Hazard Types and Examples

TYPE Examples
Natural Hazards
  • Earthquakes
  • Tornadoes
  • Lightning
  • Severe wind
  • Hurricanes
  • Floods
  • Wildfires
  • Extreme temperatures
  • Landslides or mudslides
  • Tsunamis
  • Volcanic eruptions
  • Winter precipitation
Technological Hazards
  • Explosions or accidental release of toxins from industrial plants
  • Accidental release of hazardous materials from within the school, such as gas leaks or laboratory spills
  • Hazardous materials releases from major highways or railroads
  • Radiological releases from nuclear power stations
  • Dam failure
  • Power failure
  • Water failure
Biological Hazards
  • Infectious diseases (pandemic influenza, tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, meningitis, etc.)
  • Contaminated food outbreaks: (Salmonella, botulism, E. coli, etc.)
  • Toxic materials present in school laboratories
Adversarial, Incidental, & Human-caused Threats
  • Fire
  • Active shooters
  • Criminal threats or actions
  • Gang violence
  • Bomb threats
  • Domestic violence and abuse
  • Cyber attacks
  • Dangerous animals
  • Suicide
  • Kidnapping, missing student
  • Bus accident
  • Riot/Student demonstration
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