The characteristics of security and police services on the nation's college and university campuses vary considerably. However, the following four primary types of campus public safety services are most common:
On some campuses, police and security operations may be provided by a combination of the above services, with some services contracted to private vendors while others are maintained as the responsibility of the campus public safety agency (which can include a fire department or emergency medical services unit).
Regardless of the type of public safety model utilized by the IHE, the planning team must take into consideration the authority granted to federal, state, local, and tribal first responders to act on campus as permitted by law for each agency (e.g., law enforcement agency, fire department, and public health office).
The type of police or security operation may vary within the same system or campus. Among major state university systems the police or security operations may differ from campus to campus. Individual campuses may have separate police or security departments for different components of the campus, such as the hospital, graduate school, or athletic facility. These different departments may have their own uniforms, insignia, training operations, and policies.
The type of security operation also may vary between on- and off-campus facilities. Many IHEs are decentralized, with remote centers and facilities located away from the main campus. Off-campus sites may house important research and data records. Off-campus residences may house thousands of students. Some campus public safety agencies are responsible for patrolling areas that surround campuses pursuant to legislation or through formal agreement with the federal, state, local, or tribal law enforcement authority. At some IHEs, students are not required to live on campus, and off-campus housing sites may not fall within the IHEs policing or security jurisdiction. This may create legal, jurisdictional, and operational conflicts in preventing and responding to crimes and managing emergencies.
Regardless of these variations, campus public safety officials should be intricately involved in the creation of the higher ed EOP, as they have critical responsibilities before, during, and after an emergency. To effectively develop and implement a high-quality EOP, the planning team should work with the campus public safety agency to